While numerous Jews fled Germany before, during or after WWII or stayed there for want of a better place, a number of Jews actually chose to return to East Germany in 1945 in the hope of helping to establish a “Workers’ and Peasants’ State”.
They were socialists and communists who wished to take part in the creation of a new country that would be free of all the evils that had led to Hitler’s rise to power. Such Jews included writers Anna Seghers and Arnold Zweig, literary scholar Hans Meyer and philosopher Ernst Bloch.
These people were not numerous, an estimated several hundreds, but were soon disappointed. Immediately after the end of the war, restitution became an important issue in both West and East Germany but in the latter the Communist Party refused to contribute, considering that East Germany was innocent of the Nazi past. Moreover retribution was viewed as a “bourgeois” gesture.
In addition Stalinist party purges in Eastern Europe, accompanied by anti-Semitic show trials in Prague and Budapest sparked fear among Jews in East Berlin. Jews who were communist party members often found themselves accused of being “Zionist agents” or “Jewish nationalists” As a result in early 1953, more than 600 Jews escaped to the West within a six-week period.
It was not until the fall of the Berlin Wall that things improved for the Jews of East Germany. In 1989, around 1,000 Jews, most of them elderly, were living in the German Democratic Republic – thus the Jewish community in East Berlin amounted to fewer than 500 people. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and the peaceful downfall of the East German regime, the new GDR government under Lothar de Maizière allowed Jews from the then crumbling Soviet bloc into Germany. When the two Germanys later reunited in October 1990, this ruling was upheld.
You can read about Jews in Postwar West Germany here.